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Visualizing the Assets and Liabilities of U.S. Banks



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Voronoi diagram of the assets and liabilities of U.S. banks

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Understanding the Assets and Liabilities of U.S. Banks

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The U.S. banking sector has more than 4,000 FDIC-insured banks that play a crucial role in the country’s economy by securely storing deposits and providing credit in the form of loans.

This infographic visualizes all of the deposits, loans, and other assets and liabilities that make up the collective balance sheet of U.S banks using data from the Federal Reserve.

With the spotlight on the banking sector after the collapses of Signature Bank, Silicon Valley Bank, and First Republic bank, understanding the assets and liabilities that make up banks’ balance sheets can give insight in how they operate and why they sometimes fail.

Assets: The Building Blocks of Banks’ Business

Assets are the foundation of a bank’s operations, serving as a base to provide loans and credit while also generating income.

A healthy asset portfolio with a mix of loans along with long-dated and short-dated securities is essential for a bank’s financial stability, especially since assets not marked to market may have a lower value than expected if liquidated early.

ℹ️ Mark-to-market means current market prices are being used to value an asset or liability on a balance sheet. If securities are not marked to market, their value could be different once liquidated.

As of Q4 2022, U.S. banks generated an average interest income of 4.54% on all assets.

Loans and Leases

Loans and leases are the primary income-generating assets for banks, making up 53% of the assets held by U.S. banks.

These include:

  • Real estate loans for residential and commercial properties (45% of all loans and leases)
  • Commercial and industrial loans for business operations (23% of all loans and leases)
  • Consumer loans for personal needs like credit cards and auto loans (15% of all loans and leases)
  • Various other kinds of credit (17% of all loans and leases)


Securities make up the next largest portion of U.S. banks’ assets (23%) at $5.2 trillion. Banks primarily invest in Treasury and agency securities, which are debt instruments issued by the U.S. government and its agencies.

These securities can be categorized into three types:

  • Held-to-maturity (HTM) securities, which are held until they mature and provide a stable income stream
  • Available-for-sale (AFS) securities, which can be sold before maturity
  • Trading securities, held for short-term trading to profit from price fluctuations

Along with Treasury and agency securities which make up the significant majority (80%) of U.S. banks’ securities, banks also invest in other securities which are non-government-issued debt instruments like corporate bonds, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities.

Cash Assets

Cash assets are a small but essential part of U.S. banks’ balance sheets, making up $3.1 trillion or 13% of all assets. Having enough cash assets ensures adequate liquidity needed to meet short-term obligations and regulatory requirements.

Cash assets include physical currency held in bank vaults, pending collections, and cash balances in accounts with other banks.

Liabilities: Banks’ Financial Obligations

Liabilities represent the obligations banks must fulfill, including customer deposits and borrowings. Careful management of liabilities is essential to maintain liquidity, manage risk, and ensure a bank’s overall solvency.


Deposits make up the largest portion of banks’ liabilities as they represent the money that customers entrust to these institutions. It’s important to note that the FDIC insures deposit accounts up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each type of account (like single accounts, joint accounts, and retirement accounts).

There are two primary types of deposits, large time deposits and other deposits. Large time deposits are defined by the FDIC as time deposits exceeding $100,000, while other deposits include checking accounts, savings accounts, and smaller time deposits.

U.S. banks had $17.18 trillion in overall deposits as of April 12th 2023, with other deposits accounting for 74% of the overall liabilities while large time deposits made up 9%.


After deposits, borrowings are the next largest liability on the balance sheet of U.S. banks, making up nearly 12% of all liabilities at $2.4 trillion.

These include short-term borrowings from other banks or financial institutions such as Federal Funds and repurchase agreements, along with long-term borrowings like subordinated debt which ranks below other loans and securities in the event of a default.

How Deposits, Rates, and Balance Sheets Affect Bank Failures

Just like any other business, banks have to balance their finances to remain solvent; however, successful banking also relies heavily on the trust of depositors.

While in other businesses an erosion of trust with customers might lead to breakdowns in future business deals and revenues, only in banking can a dissolution in customer trust swiftly turn into the immediate removal of deposits that backstop all revenue-generating opportunities.

Although recent bank collapses aren’t solely due to depositors withdrawing funds, bank runs have played a significant role. Most recently, in First Republic’s case, depositors pulled out more than $101 billion in Q1 of 2023, which would’ve been more than 50% of their total deposits, had some of America’s largest banks not injected $30 billion in deposits on March 16th.

It’s important to remember that the rapidly spreading fires of bank runs are initially sparked by poor asset management, which can sometimes be detected on banks’ balance sheets.

A combination of excessive investment in long-dated held-to-maturity securities, one of the fastest rate hiking cycles in recent history, and many depositors fearing for and moving their uninsured deposits of over $250,000 has resulted in the worst year ever for bank failures in terms of total assets.

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Visualizing the $105 Trillion World Economy in One Chart

How much does each country contribute to the $105 trillion world economy in 2023, and what nations are seeing their nominal GDPs shrink?



A chart showing the breakup of the world economy, organized by the size of each country's gross domestic product.

Visualizing the $105 Trillion World Economy in One Chart

By the end of 2023, the world economy is expected to have a gross domestic product (GDP) of $105 trillion, or $5 trillion higher than the year before, according to the latest International Monetary Fund (IMF) projections from its 2023 World Economic Outlook report.

In nominal terms, that’s a 5.3% increase in global GDP. In inflation-adjusted terms, that would be a 2.8% increase.

ℹ️ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the total value of economic output—goods and services—produced within a given time frame by both the private and public sectors. All numbers used in this article, unless otherwise specified, are nominal figures, and do not account for inflation.

The year started with turmoil for the global economy, with financial markets rocked by the collapse of several mid-sized U.S. banks alongside persistent inflation and tightening monetary conditions in most countries. Nevertheless, some economies have proven to be resilient, and are expected to register growth from 2022.

Ranking Countries by Economic Size in 2023

The U.S. is expected to continue being the biggest economy in 2023 with a projected GDP of $26.9 trillion for the year. This is more than the sum of the GDPs of 174 countries ranked from Indonesia (17th) to Tuvalu (191st).

China stays steady at second place with a projected $19.4 trillion GDP in 2023. Most of the top-five economies remain in the same positions from 2022, with one notable exception.

India is expected to climb past the UK to become the fifth-largest economy with a projected 2023 GDP of $3.7 trillion.

Here’s a look at the size of every country’s economy in 2023, according to IMF’s estimates.

RankCountryGDP (USD)% of Total
1🇺🇸 U.S.$26,855B25.54%
2🇨🇳 China$19,374B18.43%
3🇯🇵 Japan$4,410B4.19%
4🇩🇪 Germany$4,309B4.10%
5🇮🇳 India$3,737B3.55%
6🇬🇧 UK$3,159B3.00%
7🇫🇷 France$2,923B2.78%
8🇮🇹 Italy$2,170B2.06%
9🇨🇦 Canada$2,090B1.99%
10🇧🇷 Brazil$2,081B1.98%
11🇷🇺 Russia$2,063B1.96%
12🇰🇷 South Korea$1,722B1.64%
13🇦🇺 Australia$1,708B1.62%
14🇲🇽 Mexico$1,663B1.58%
15🇪🇸 Spain$1,492B1.42%
16🇮🇩 Indonesia$1,392B1.32%
17🇳🇱 Netherlands$1,081B1.03%
18🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia$1,062B1.01%
19🇹🇷 Türkiye$1,029B0.98%
20🇨🇭 Switzerland$870B0.83%
21🇹🇼 Taiwan$791B0.75%
22🇵🇱 Poland$749B0.71%
23🇦🇷 Argentina$641B0.61%
24🇧🇪 Belgium$624B0.59%
25🇸🇪 Sweden$599B0.57%
26🇮🇪 Ireland$594B0.57%
27🇹🇭 Thailand$574B0.55%
28🇳🇴 Norway$554B0.53%
29🇮🇱 Israel$539B0.51%
30🇸🇬 Singapore$516B0.49%
31🇦🇹 Austria$515B0.49%
32🇳🇬 Nigeria$507B0.48%
33🇦🇪 UAE$499B0.47%
34🇻🇳 Vietnam$449B0.43%
35🇲🇾 Malaysia$447B0.43%
36🇵🇭 Philippines$441B0.42%
37🇧🇩 Bangladesh$421B0.40%
38🇩🇰 Denmark$406B0.39%
39🇿🇦 South Africa$399B0.38%
40🇪🇬 Egypt$387B0.37%
41🇭🇰 Hong Kong$383B0.36%
42🇮🇷 Iran$368B0.35%
43🇨🇱 Chile$359B0.34%
44🇷🇴 Romania$349B0.33%
45🇨🇴 Colombia$335B0.32%
46🇨🇿 Czech Republic$330B0.31%
47🇫🇮 Finland$302B0.29%
48🇵🇪 Peru$268B0.26%
49🇮🇶 Iraq$268B0.25%
50🇵🇹 Portugal$268B0.25%
51🇳🇿 New Zealand$252B0.24%
52🇰🇿 Kazakhstan$246B0.23%
53🇬🇷 Greece$239B0.23%
54🇶🇦 Qatar$220B0.21%
55🇩🇿 Algeria$206B0.20%
56🇭🇺 Hungary$189B0.18%
57🇰🇼 Kuwait$165B0.16%
58🇪🇹 Ethiopia$156B0.15%
59🇺🇦 Ukraine$149B0.14%
60🇲🇦 Morocco$139B0.13%
61🇸🇰 Slovak
62🇪🇨 Ecuador$121B0.12%
63🇩🇴 Dominican
64🇵🇷 Puerto Rico$121B0.11%
65🇰🇪 Kenya$118B0.11%
66🇦🇴 Angola$118B0.11%
67🇴🇲 Oman$105B0.10%
68🇬🇹 Guatemala$102B0.10%
69🇧🇬 Bulgaria$101B0.10%
70🇻🇪 Venezuela$97B0.09%
71🇺🇿 Uzbekistan$92B0.09%
72🇱🇺 Luxembourg$87B0.08%
73🇹🇿 Tanzania$85B0.08%
74🇹🇲 Turkmenistan$83B0.08%
75🇭🇷 Croatia$79B0.08%
76🇱🇹 Lithuania$78B0.07%
77🇨🇷 Costa Rica$78B0.07%
78🇺🇾 Uruguay$77B0.07%
79🇵🇦 Panama$77B0.07%
80🇨🇮 Côte d'Ivoire$77B0.07%
81🇷🇸 Serbia$74B0.07%
82🇧🇾 Belarus$74B0.07%
83🇦🇿 Azerbaijan$70B0.07%
84🇨🇩 DRC$69B0.07%
85🇸🇮 Slovenia$68B0.06%
86🇬🇭 Ghana$67B0.06%
87🇲🇲 Myanmar$64B0.06%
88🇯🇴 Jordan$52B0.05%
89🇹🇳 Tunisia$50B0.05%
90🇺🇬 Uganda$50B0.05%
91🇨🇲 Cameroon$49B0.05%
92🇱🇻 Latvia$47B0.05%
93🇸🇩 Sudan$47B0.04%
94🇱🇾 Libya$46B0.04%
95🇧🇴 Bolivia$46B0.04%
96🇧🇭 Bahrain$45B0.04%
97🇵🇾 Paraguay$43B0.04%
98🇳🇵 Nepal$42B0.04%
99🇪🇪 Estonia$42B0.04%
100🇲🇴 Macao$36B0.03%
101🇭🇳 Honduras$34B0.03%
102🇸🇻 El Salvador$34B0.03%
103🇵🇬 Papua
New Guinea
104🇸🇳 Senegal$31B0.03%
105🇨🇾 Cyprus$31B0.03%
106🇰🇭 Cambodia$31B0.03%
107🇿🇼 Zimbabwe$30B0.03%
108🇿🇲 Zambia$29B0.03%
109🇮🇸 Iceland$29B0.03%
110🇧🇦 Bosnia &
111🇹🇹 Trinidad
& Tobago
112🇬🇪 Georgia$28B0.03%
113🇭🇹 Haiti$27B0.03%
114🇦🇲 Armenia$24B0.02%
115🇬🇳 Guinea$23B0.02%
116🇧🇫 Burkina Faso$21B0.02%
117🇲🇱 Mali$21B0.02%
118🇬🇦 Gabon$20B0.02%
119🇦🇱 Albania$20B0.02%
120🇲🇿 Mozambique$20B0.02%
121🇧🇼 Botswana$20B0.02%
122🇾🇪 Yemen$20B0.02%
123🇲🇹 Malta$19B0.02%
124🇧🇯 Benin$19B0.02%
125🇵🇸 West Bank
& Gaza
126🇳🇮 Nicaragua$17B0.02%
127🇯🇲 Jamaica$17B0.02%
128🇲🇳 Mongolia$17B0.02%
129🇳🇪 Niger$17B0.02%
130🇬🇾 Guyana$16B0.02%
131🇲🇬 Madagascar$16B0.02%
132🇲🇩 Moldova$16B0.02%
133🇧🇳 Brunei Darussalam$16B0.01%
134🇲🇰 North Macedonia$15B0.01%
135🇬🇶 Equatorial Guinea$15B0.01%
136🇲🇺 Mauritius$15B0.01%
137🇧🇸 Bahamas$14B0.01%
138🇱🇦 Laos$14B0.01%
139🇳🇦 Namibia$13B0.01%
140🇷🇼 Rwanda$13B0.01%
141🇨🇩 Congo$13B0.01%
142🇹🇯 Tajikistan$13B0.01%
143🇰🇬 Kyrgyz Republic$12B0.01%
144🇹🇩 Chad$12B0.01%
145🇲🇼 Malawi$11B0.01%
146🇲🇷 Mauritania$11B0.01%
147🇽🇰 Kosovo$10B0.01%
148🇹🇬 Togo$9B0.01%
149🇸🇴 Somalia$9B0.01%
150🇲🇪 Montenegro$7B0.01%
151🇸🇸 South Sudan$7B0.01%
152🇲🇻 Maldives$7B0.01%
153🇧🇧 Barbados$6B0.01%
154🇫🇯 Fiji$5B0.01%
155🇸🇿 Eswatini$5B0.00%
156🇱🇷 Liberia$4B0.00%
157🇩🇯 Djibouti$4B0.00%
158🇦🇩 Andorra$4B0.00%
159🇦🇼 Aruba$4B0.00%
160🇸🇱 Sierra Leone$4B0.00%
161🇸🇷 Suriname$3B0.00%
162🇧🇮 Burundi$3B0.00%
163🇧🇿 Belize$3B0.00%
164🇨🇫 Central
African Republic
165🇧🇹 Bhutan$3B0.00%
166🇪🇷 Eritrea$3B0.00%
167🇱🇸 Lesotho$3B0.00%
168🇨🇻 Cabo Verde$2B0.00%
169🇬🇲 Gambia$2B0.00%
170🇱🇨 Saint Lucia$2B0.00%
171🇹🇱 East Timor$2B0.00%
172🇸🇨 Seychelles$2B0.00%
173🇬🇼 Guinea-Bissau$2B0.00%
174🇦🇬 Antigua & Barbuda$2B0.00%
175🇸🇲 San Marino$2B0.00%
176🇸🇧 Solomon Islands$2B0.00%
177🇰🇲 Comoros$1B0.00%
178🇬🇩 Grenada$1B0.00%
179🇻🇺 Vanuatu$1B0.00%
180🇰🇳 Saint Kitts
& Nevis
181🇻🇨 Saint Vincent
& the Grenadines
182🇼🇸 Samoa$1B0.00%
183🇩🇲 Dominica$1B0.00%
184🇸🇹 São Tomé
& Príncipe
185🇹🇴 Tonga$1B0.00%
186🇫🇲 Micronesia$0.5B0.00%
187🇲🇭 Marshall Islands$0.3B0.00%
188🇵🇼 Palau$0.3B0.00%
189🇰🇮 Kiribati$0.2B0.00%
190🇳🇷 Nauru$0.2B0.00%
191🇹🇻 Tuvalu$0.1B0.00%

Note: Projections for Afghanistan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Syria are missing from IMF’s database for 2023.

Here are the largest economies for each region of the world.

  • Africa: Nigeria ($506.6 billion)
  • Asia: China ($19.4 trillion)
  • Europe: Germany ($4.3 trillion)
  • Middle East: Saudi Arabia ($1.1 trillion)
  • North & Central America: U.S. ($26.9 trillion)
  • Oceania: Australia ($1.7 trillion)
  • South America: Brazil ($2.1 trillion)

Ranked: 2023’s Shrinking Economies

In fact, 29 economies are projected to shrink from their 2022 sizes, leading to nearly $500 billion in lost output.

A bar chart showing the amount of nominal GDP shrinkage for several countries.

Russia will see the biggest decline, with a projected $150 billion contraction this year. This is equal to about one-third of total decline of all 29 countries with shrinking economies.

Egypt (-$88 billion) and Canada (-$50 billion) combined make up another one-third of lost output.

In Egypt’s case, the drop can be partly explained by the country’s currency (Egyptian pound), which has dropped in value against the U.S. dollar by about 50% since mid-2022.

Russia and Canada are some of the world’s largest oil producers and the oil price has fallen since 2022. A further complication for Russia is that the country has been forced to sell oil at a steep discount because of Western sanctions.

Here are the projected changes in GDP for all countries facing year-over-year declines:

CountryRegion2022–23 Change (USD)2022–23 Change (%)
🇷🇺 RussiaEurope-$152.65B-6.9%
🇪🇬 EgyptAfrica-$88.12B-18.5%
🇨🇦 CanadaNorth America-$50.17B-2.3%
🇸🇦 Saudi ArabiaMiddle East-$46.25B-4.2%
🇧🇩 BangladeshAsia-$39.69B-8.6%
🇳🇴 NorwayEurope-$25.16B-4.3%
🇰🇼 KuwaitMiddle East-$19.85B-10.8%
🇴🇲 OmanMiddle East-$9.77B-8.5%
🇨🇴 ColombiaSouth America-$9.25B-2.7%
🇦🇪 UAEMiddle East-$8.56B-1.7%
🇿🇦 South AfricaAfrica-$6.69B-1.6%
🇬🇭 GhanaAfrica-$6.22B-8.5%
🇶🇦 QatarMiddle East-$5.91B-2.6%
🇦🇴 AngolaAfrica-$3.54B-2.9%
🇿🇼 ZimbabweAfrica-$3.09B-9.4%
🇺🇦 UkraineEurope-$2.79B-1.8%
🇸🇩 SudanAfrica-$2.72B-5.5%
🇮🇶 IraqMiddle East-$2.47B-0.9%
🇹🇱 East TimorAsia-$1.67B-45.7%
🇬🇦 GabonAfrica-$1.60B-7.3%
🇬🇶 Equatorial GuineaAfrica-$1.35B-8.2%
🇲🇼 MalawiAfrica-$1.24B-9.9%
🇱🇦 LaosAsia-$1.21B-7.9%
🇧🇳 BruneiAsia-$1.13B-6.8%
🇾🇪 YemenMiddle East-$1.12B-5.4%
🇸🇸 South SudanAfrica-$0.86B-10.9%
🇧🇮 BurundiAfrica-$0.66B-16.9%
🇸🇱 Sierra LeoneAfrica-$0.42B-10.6%
🇸🇷 SurinameSouth America-$0.05B-1.4%

The presence of Saudi Arabia, Norway, Kuwait, and Oman in the top 10 biggest GDP contractions further highlights the potential impact on GDP for oil-producing countries, according to the IMF’s projections.

More recently, producers have been cutting supply in an effort to boost prices, but concerns of slowing global oil demand in the wake of a subdued Chinese economy (the world’s second-largest oil consumer), have kept oil prices lower than in 2022 regardless.

The Footnote on GDP Forecasts

While organizations like the IMF have gotten fairly good at GDP forecasting, it’s still worth remembering that these are projections and assumptions made at the beginning of the year that may not hold true by the end of 2023.

For example, JP Morgan has already changed their forecast for China’s 2023 real GDP growth six times in as many months after expectations of broad-based pandemic-recovery spending did not materialize in the country.

The key takeaway from IMF’s projections for 2023 GDP growth rests on how well countries restrict inflation without stifling growth, all amidst tense liquidity conditions.

Where Does This Data Come From?

Source: The International Monetary Fund’s Datamapper which uses projections made in the April 2023 World Economic Outlook report.

Note: Projections for Afghanistan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Syria are missing from the IMF’s database. Furthermore, all figures used in the article, unless specified, are nominal GDP numbers and rates.


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